SoLIM Homepage

About SoLIM

Homepage of Professor Zhu

The Group



SoLIM projects

(The publications listed here are the key papers on the three major research projects: The SoLIM Project, The Watershed System Science Project and The EasyGC Project. Other references are provided through the Publication section under Prof. A-Xing Zhu)

1. Papers on the SoLIM project

(Click here to obtain a list of the references listed blow. For a copy of these papers, please email me at

1) Overview of SoLIM

01a: Overview of SoLIM (February, 2007)
PDF (316KB, 25 pages)

01b: Zhu, A.X., B. Hudson, J. E. Burt, and K. Lubich, 2001. "Soil mapping using GIS, expert knowledge, and fuzzy logic", Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 65, pp. 1463-1472.

01c: Zhu, A.X., L.E. Band, B. Dutton, and T. Nimlos, 1996. "Automated soil inference under fuzzy logic", Ecological Modelling, Vol. 90, No. 2, pp. 123-145.

2) Representation Scheme

02: Zhu, A.X., 1997. "A similarity model for representing soil spatial information", Geoderma, Vol. 77, pp. 217-242.

3) Inference methods

03a: Zhu, A.X. and L.E. Band, 1994. "A knowledge-based approach to data integration for soil mapping", Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 408-418.

03b: Shi, X., A.X. Zhu, J.E. Burt, F. Qi, and D. Simonson, 2004. "A case-based reasoning approach to fuzzy soil mapping", Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 68, pp.885-894.

03c: Zhu, A.X., Liu, J., C. Qin, S. Zhang, Y. Chen, X. Ma, H. Zhang, R. Liu, T. Behrens, T. Scholten, 2015. “Predictive soil mapping with limited sample data”, European Journal of Soil Sciences, Vol. 66, 535–547.

03d: Zhu, A.X., 2008. “Rule based mapping”. In: J.P. Wilson and A.S. Fotheringham (eds.) The Handbook of Geographic Information Science, Blackwell, Malden, MA, pp. 273-291.

03e: Zhu, A.X., 2006. “Fuzzy logic models in soil science”. In Sabine Grunwald and Mary E. Collins (eds.) Environmental soil-landscape modeling : geographic information technologies and pedometrics, CRC/Taylor & Francis, New York, pp. 215-239.

4) Knowledge Acquisition

From Experts

04a: Zhu, A.X. 1999. "A personal constructed-based knowledge acquisition process for natural resource mapping using GIS", International Journal of Geographic Information Systems., Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 119-141.

04b: Qi, F., A.X. Zhu, M. Harrower, and J.E. Burt. 2006. "Fuzzy soil mapping based on prototype category theory", Geoderma, Vol. 136, pp. 774-787.

04c: Liu, J., Zhu, A.X., 2009. “Mapping with words: a new approach to automated digital soil survey”, International Journal of Intelligent Systems, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 293-311.

From Maps

04d: Qi, F., A.X. Zhu, 2003. "Knowledge discovery from soil maps using inductive learning", International Journal of Geographical Information Science,, Vol. 17, No. 8, pp. 771-795.

04e: Qi, F., Zhu, A-X., Pei, T., Qin, C., and Burt, J.E., 2008, “Knowledge discovery from area-class resource maps: capturing prototype effects”, Cartography and Geographic Information Science, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 223-237.

04f: Yang, L., F. Sherif, Y. Jiao, H. Sheldon, A.X. Zhu, C.Z. Qin, Z.G. Xu, 2011. “Updating conventional soil maps through digital soil mapping”, Soil Science Society of America Journal. Vol. 75, NO. 3, pp. 1044-1053.

04g: Du, Fei, A-Xing Zhu, Jing Liu, Lawrence Band, 2015. “Soil Property Variation Mapping through Data Mining of Soil Category Maps for Hydrological Modelling”, Hydrological Processes, 29, 2491-2503.

From field points

04h: Zhu, A.X. 2000. "Mapping soil landscape as spatial continua: the neural network approach", Water Resources Research, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 663-677.

04i: Zhu, A.X., L. Yang, B.L. Li, C.Z. Qin, T. Pei, B.Y. Liu, 2010. “Construction of quantitative relationships for predictive soil mapping under fuzzy logic”, Geoderma, Vol. 155, No. 3-4, pp. 166-174.

04j: Zhu, A.X., L. Yang; B. Li, C. Qin, E. English, J. E. Burt, C.H. Zhou, 2008. “Purposefully sampling for digital soil mapping”. In: A.E. Hartemink, A.B. McBratney and M.L. Mendonca Santos (eds.) Digital Soil Mapping with Limited Data, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 233-245.

04k: Yang, L., A.X. Zhu, F. Qi, C. Qin, B. Li, T. Pei, “An integrative hierarchical stepwise sampling strategy for spatial sampling and its application in digital soil mapping”, International Journal of Geographical Information Science,2012, pp.1-23.

5) Environmental Covariates Characterization

05a: Smith, M.P., A.X. Zhu*, J.E. Burt, C. Stiles, 2006. "Effects of DEM resolution and neighborhood size on digital soil survey", Geoderma,Vol. 137, pp.58-69.

05b: Zhu, A.X., F. Liu, B.L. Li, T. Pei, C.Z. Qin, G.H. Liu, Y.J. Wang, Y.N. Chen, X.W. Ma, F. Qi, C.H. Zhou, 2010. “Differentiation of soil conditions over flat areas using land surface feedback dynamic patterns extracted from MODIS”, Soil Science Society of America Journal. Vol. 74, NO. 3, pp. 861-869.

05c: Liu, F., X. Geng, A.X. Zhu, W. Fraser, 2012. “Soil texturemapping over low relief areas using land surface feedback dynamic patterns extracted from MODIS”, Geoderma, 171–172 (2012) 44–52.

05d: Qin, C.Z., A.X. Zhu, W.L. Qiu, Y.J. Lu, B.L. Bao, T. Pei, 2012. “Mapping soil organic matter in small low-relief catchments using fuzzy slope position information”, Geoderma, 171-172(2012) 64-74.

05e: Guo, Shanxin, Lingkui Meng, A-Xing Zhu*, James E. Burt, Fei Du, Jing Liu and Guiming Zhang, 2015. “Data-Gap Filling to Understand the Dynamic Feedback Pattern of Soil”, Remote Sensing, 7(9), pp.11801-11820.

05f: Guo, Shanxin, A-Xing Zhu*, Lingkui Meng, James E. Burt, Fei Du, Jing Liu, Guiming Zhang, 2016. “Unification of soil feedback patterns under different evaporation conditions to improve soil differentiation over flat area”, International Journal of Applied Earth Observation & Geoinformation, Vol. 49, pp. 126-137.

05g: Zeng, Canying, A-Xing Zhu*, Feng Liu, Lin Yang, David G. Rossiter, Junzhi Liu, Desheng Wang, 2017. "The impact of rainfall magnitude on the performance of digital soil mapping over low-relief areas using a land surface dynamic feedback method". Ecological Indicators.72: 297-309.

6) Soil Property Derivation

06a: Zhu, A.X., L.E. Band, R. Vertessy, B. Dutton, 1997. "Derivation of soil properties using a Soil-Land Inference Model (SoLIM)", Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 61, No. 2, pp. 523-533.

06b: Zhu, A.X., F. Qi, A. Moore, J.E. Burt, 2010. “Prediction of soil properties using fuzzy membership”, Geoderma, Vol. 158, pp. 199-206.

7) Uncertainty Quantification and Visualization

07a: Zhu, A.X., 1997. "Measuring uncertainty in class assignment for natural resource maps under fuzzy logic", Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, Vol. 63, pp. 1195-1202.

07b: Qi, F., A.X. Zhu, 2011. “Comparing three methods for modeling the uncertainty in knowledge discovery from area-class soil maps”, Computers & Geosciences 37, 1425-1437.

07c: Burt, J.E., A.X. Zhu, M. Harrower, 2011. “Depicting classification uncertainty using perception based color models”, Annals of GIS, 17(3): 147-153

8) Detailed Soil Mapping and Environmental Modeling

08a: Zhu, A.X., D. Scott Mackay, 2001. "Effects of spatial detail of soil information on watershed modeling", Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 248, pp. 54-77.

08b: Quinn, T., A.X. Zhu*, and J.E. Burt, 2005. "Effects of detailed soil spatial information on watershed modeling across different model scales", International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, Vol. 7, pp.324-338.

9) Softer Platforms

09a: Jiang, Jingchao, A-Xing Zhu*, Cheng-Zhi Qin, Tongxin Zhu, Junzhi Liu, Fei Du, Jing Liu, Guiming Zhang, Yiming An, 2016. “CyberSoLIM: A Cyber Platform for Digital Soil Mapping”, Geoderma, Vol 263, pp. 234-243

2. Papers on The Watershed System Science Project

Zhu, A.X., P. Wang, T.X. Zhu, L. Chen*, Q. Cai, H. Liu, 2013. “Modeling runoff and soil erosion in the three-gorge reservoir drainage area of China using limited plot data”, Journal of Hydrology, 492, 163-175.

Wu, Hui, A-Xing Zhu, Junzhi Liu*, Yongbo Liu, Jingchao Jiang, 2018. "Best Management Practices Optimization at Watershed Scale: Incorporating Spatial Topology among Fields." Water Resources Management,32(2), 1-23. DOI: 10.1007/s11269-017-1801-8.


3. Papers on The EasyGC Project

Jiang, Jingchao, A-Xing Zhu*, Cheng-Zhi Qin, Tongxin Zhu, Junzhi Liu, Fei Du, Jing Liu, Guiming Zhang, Yiming An, 2016. “CyberSoLIM: A Cyber Platform for Digital Soil Mapping”, Geoderma, Vol 263, pp. 234-243.




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