SoLIM Homepage

About SoLIM

Homepage of Professor Zhu

The Group



SoLIM projects

A-Xing Zhu
Department of Geography
University of Wisconsin
550 North Park Street
Madison, Wisconsin 53706

Telephone: (608) 262-0272

Fax: (608) 265-3991


Spring Office Hours:

Tuesdays 2:30 - 3:30

Thursdays 2:30 - 3:30

For Prospective Students

Career Research Interests
Teaching Responsibilities
Research Projects
Honors and Awards
Refereed Publications
Other Links (His Service)

Career Research Interests

Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) techniques, artificial intelligence/machine learning, fuzzy logic; watershed system modeling and scenario analysis; intelligent geocomputing

Teaching Responsibilities

Global Physical Environments
(Geog 120)

Introduction to GIS
(Geog 377)

Environmental Modeling with GIS
(Geog 577)

GIS Applications
(Geog 578)

GIS and Spatial Analysis
(Geog 579)

Seminar in Geographic Information Science
(Geog 970)

Research Projects

    Spatial prediction and mapping under GIS

  • Mapping spatial variation under Third Law of Geography and fuzzy logic using citizen science data (soil mapping, landslide susceptibility mapping, habitat suitability mapping)
  • Spatial sampling (purposive sampling, uncertainty-directed sampling)
  • Artificial intelligence, machine learning and spatial data mining for knowledge discovery
  • Remote sensing of land surface dynamics mapping using MODIS
  • Watershed system science (watershed modeing and scenario anlaysis)

  • Development of fully distributed and integrated watershed system models
  • Incorporation of spatial topology in scenario analysis using integrated whatershed system modeling
  • Sensitivity analysis of ecological models to detailed soil spatial information
  • Easy and intelligent geographic computing (EasyGC)

  • Development of high performance computing for geographic anlaysis
  • Development of Intelligence modeling building enviroment for geographic analysis (including watershed modeling and scenario analysis
  • Intelligent spatial data discovery and matching for geogrpahic analysis

Honors and Awards

    2017 Recipient of CPGIS Education Excellence Award, Chinese Professionals in Geographical Information Science.
    2012 Manasse Chair Professor, University of Wisconsin-Madison
    2009 The Hamel Faculty Fellow Award, University of Wisconsin-Madison
    2008 The Vilas Associate Award, University of Wisconsin-Madison
    1997 The ASPRS Intergraph Award for best scientific paper in spatial data standards
    1985-86 World Bank Scholarship for outstanding Chinese scholars



Zhu, A.X. 2008. Detail Digital Soil Survey: Models and Methods (in Chinese), Science Press£¬ Beijing, China, ISBN: 978-7-03-021521-5, 227 p.

Cai, Q.G., A.X. Zhu, H.X. Bi, L.Y. Sun (editors), 2012. Paradigms for Integrated Soil and Water Conservation Over Main Water Erosion Regions in China (in Chinese), ChinaWaterPowerPress, Beijing, China, ISBN: 978-7-5170-0400-4, 286 p.

Journal Articles

132. Wu, Mingguang, Guonian Lv, A-Xing Zhu, (accepted). “An Improved Map-Symbol Model to Facilitate Sharing of Heterogeneous Qualitative Map Symbols”, Cartography and Geographic Information Science.

131. Yue, Songshan, Jianshun Yang, Min Chen, Guonian Lu, A-Xing Zhu & Yongning Wen*, (in press). “A function-based linear map symbol building and rendering method using shader language”, International Journal of Geographic Information Sciences, DOI:10.1080/13658816.2015.1077964.

130. Du, Fei, A-Xing Zhu, Feng Qi, (in press). “Interactive visual cluster detection in large geospatial datasets based on dynamic density volume visualization”, Geocarto International.

129. Guo, Shanxin, Lingkui Meng, A-Xing Zhu*, James E. Burt, Fei Du, Jing Liu and Guiming Zhang, (accepted). “Data-Gap Filling to Understand the Dynamic Feedback Pattern of Soil”, Remote Sensing.

128. Yu Zhaoyuan, Wen Luo, Linwang Yuan, Yong Hu, A-Xing Zhu and Guonian Lu, (accepted). “Geometric Algebra Model for Geometry-oriented Topological Relation Computation”. Transactions in GIS.

127. Huang, Changchun, Yulong Guo, HaoYang, Yunmei Li*, Jun Zou, Mingli Zhang, Heng Lyu, A-Xing Zhu, Tao Huang, (accepted), “Using remote sensing to track variation in phosphorus and its interaction with chlorophyll-a and suspended sediment”, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing.

126. Huang, Changchun, Yunmei Li, HaoYang, A-Xing, Zhu, Mingli Zhang, Heng Lv, Tao Huang, Jun Zou, (accepted), “Evaluation of Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) to monitor the dynamic characteristics of suspension sediment in Taihu Lake,” International Journal of Remote Sensing.

125. Zhu, A-Xing, Gui-Ming Zhang, Wei Wang, Wen Xiao , Zhi-Pang Huang, Ge-Sang Dunzhu, Guo-Peng Ren, Cheng-Zhi Qin, Lin Yang, Tao Pei and Shengtian Yang, (accepted). “A citizen data-based approach to predictive mapping of spatial variation of natural phenomena”, International Journal of Geographical Information Science.

124. Jiang, Jingchao, A-Xing Zhu*, Cheng-Zhi Qin, Tongxin Zhu, Junzhi Liu, Fei Du, Jing Liu, Guiming Zhang, Yiming An, (accepted). “CyberSoLIM: A Cyber Platform for Digital Soil Mapping”, Geoderma.

123. Yue, Yaojie, Jian Li, Xinyue Ye, Zhiqiang Wang, A-Xing Zhu & Jing-ai Wang, (in press), “An EPIC model-based vulnerability assessment of wheat subject to drought”, Natural Hazards. DOI 10.1007/s11069-015-1793-8.

122. Van Den Hoek, J., Burnicki, A., Ozdogan, M., & Zhu, A. (accepted). “Using a landscape ecology-based analysis to examine the success of forest policy implementation in Southwest China”. Landscape Ecology.

121. Zhu, T.X. and A.X. Zhu, (accepted), “Assessment of soil erosion and conservation on agricultural sloping lands using plot data in the semi-arid hilly loess region of China”, Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies 2, pp. 69-83.

120. Li, R.K., X.P. Rui, A.X Zhu, J.Z. Liu, L.E. Band, X.F. Song*, (in press). “Increasing detail of distributed runoff modeling by using fuzzy logic in curve number”, Environmental Earth Sciences. DOI: 10.1007/s12665-014-3620-z.

119. Qin, C.Z.*, L.J. Zhan, A.X. Zhu, C.H. Zhou, (in press). “A strategy for raster-based geocomputation under different parallel computing platforms”, International Journal of Geographical Information Science. DOI:10.1080/13658816.2014.911300.

118. Yang, L., A.X. Zhu, S.J. Zhang, Y.M. An. Accepted, “A comparative study of multi-grade representative sampling and stratified random sampling for soil mapping”, (accepted). Acta pedologica sinica(in Chinese).

117. Du, Fei, A-Xing Zhu, Jing Liu, Lawrence Band, (accepted), “Soil Property Variation Mapping through Data Mining of Soil Category Maps for Hydrological Modelling”, Hydrological Processes. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.10383.

116. Yue, Yaojie, Xueyong ZOU, Peijun SHI, Xinyue YE, Guofang HU, A-Xing ZHU, Jing-ai WANG. (accepted) “Wind Erosion through Field Survey and Remote Sensing: A Case Study of the Mu Us Desert, China”. Natural Hazards. DOI 10.1007/s11069-014-1516-6.

115. Wen, W., Y.F. Wang, L. Yang*, L. Di, L.D. Chen, J. Liu, A.X. Zhu. In press, “Mapping soil organic carbon using auxiliary environmental covariates in a typical watershed in the Loess Plateau of China: a comparative study based on three kriging methods and a soil land inference model (SoLIM)”, (in press). Environmental Earth Sciences. DOI: 10.1007/s12665-014-3518-9.

114. Liu, Junzhi, Zheng Duan, Jingchao Jiang, A-Xing Zhu. (accepted), “Evaluation of three satellite precipitation products TRMM 3B42, CMORPH and PERSIANN over a subtropical watershed in China”, Advances in Meteorology.

113. Yu, Zhaoyuan, Wen Lu, Yong Hu, Linwang Yuan*, A-Xing Zhu & Guonian Lü, 2015. “Change detection for 3D vector data: a CGA-based Delaunay–TIN intersection approach”, International Journal of Geographical Information Science, Volume 29, Issue 12, pp 2328-2347. DOI:10.1080/13658816.2015.1077963.

112. Luo, Wen, Zhao-Yuan Yu,  Sheng-Jun Xiao,  A-Xing Zhu and  Lin-Wang Yuan, 2015. “Exploratory Method for Spatio-Temporal Feature Extraction and Clustering: An Integrated Multi-Scale Framework”, ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 4(4), 1870-1893; doi:10.3390/ijgi4041870

111. Yuan, Linwang*, Zhaoyuan Yu, Wen Luo, Yong Hu, Linyao Feng, A-Xing Zhu, 2015. “A Hierarchical TensorBased Approach to Compressing, Updating and Querying Geospatial Data”. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 312-325.

110. Huang, Changchun, Kun Shi, Hao Yang, Yunmei Li, A-Xing Zhu, Deyong Sun, Liangjiang Xu, Jun Zou, Xia Chen, 2015. “Satellite observation of hourly dynamic characteristics of algae with Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) data in Lake Taihu”. Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 159, pp. 278-287.

109. Liu, Kai, Guoan Tang, Ling Jiang, A-Xing Zhu, Jianyi Yang, Xiaodong Song, 2015. “Regional-scale calculation of the LS factor using parallel processing”, Computer & Geosciences, Vol. 78, pp. 110-122.

108. Zhu, A.X., Liu, J., C. Qin, S. Zhang, Y. Chen, X. Ma, H. Zhang, R. Liu, T. Behrens, T. Scholten, 2015. “Predictive soil mapping with limited sample data”, European Journal of Soil Sciences, Vol. 66, 535–547.

107. Wu, H., Y.B. Liu*, J.Z. Liu, A.X. Zhu, 2014. “Representation of Agricultural Best Management Practices in a Fully Distributed Hydrologic Model: A Case Study in the Luoyugou Watershed”, Journal of Resources and Ecology, 5(2), 179-184.

106. Zhu, A.X., R.X. Wang, J.P Qiao, Y.B. Chen, J. Liu, F. Du, Y. Lin, T.X. Zhu, 2014. “An expert knowledge-based approach to landslide susceptibility mapping using GIS and fuzzy logic”, Geomorphology,

105. Van Den Hoek, J., M. Ozdogan, A. Burnicki, A.X. Zhu, 2014. “Evaluating forest policy implementation effectiveness with a cross-scale remote sensing analysis in a priority conservation area of Southwest China”, Applied Geography, Vol. 47, pp. 177-189.

104. Liu, J.Z., A.X. Zhu*, Y. Liu, T. Zhu, C. Z. Qin, 2014. “A layered approach to parallel computing for spatially distributed hydrological modeling”, Environmental Modelling & Software 51, 221-227.

103. Shangguan, W., Y. Dai*, B. Liu, A.X. Zhu, Q. Duan, L.Wu, D. Ji, A. Ye, H. Yuan, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, M. Chen, J. Chu, Y. Dou, J. Guo, H. Li, J. Li, L. Liang, X. Liang, H. Liu, S. Liu, C. Miao, Y. Zhang, 2013. “A China Dataset of Soil Properties for Land Surface Modeling”, Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 5(2), 212-224.

102. Zhang, S.J., A.X. Zhu, W.L. Liu, J. Liu, L. Yang. 2013. “Mapping detailed soil property using small scale soil type maps and sparse typical samples”, Chinese Geographical Science, 2013, 23(6), 680-691.

101. Li, R.K., A.X. Zhu, L.J. Chen, J.Z. Liu, 2013. “Effects of Soil Parameters in SCS-CN Runoff Model”, Journal of natural resources (in Chinese), 2013, 28(10): 1778-1787.

100. Qin, C.Z., L.J. Zhan, A.X. Zhu. 2013, “How to apply the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL) properly to parallel geospatial raster I/O?”. Transactions in GIS. DOI: 10.1111/tgis.12068.

99. Zhang, S., A.X. Zhu, J. Liu, L. Yang, 2013. “Soil sampling scheme based on simulated annealing method”, Chinese journal of soil science (in Chinese).

98. Zhang, G., A.X. Zhu, S. Yang, C. Qin, W. Xiao, Steve K. Windels. 2013, “Mapping wildlife habitat suitability using kernel density estimation”, Acta ecologica sinica (in Chinese)£¬33(23):7590-7600.

97. Liu, J., A.X. Zhu*, S.J. Zhang, C. Qin, 2013. “Large-scaled soil attribute mapping method based on individual representativeness of sample sites”, Acta pedologica sinica(in Chinese). 2013, 50(1): 12-20.

96. Liu, J.Z., A.X. Zhu*, Y. Liu, C. Qin, L. Chen, H. Wu, L. Yang, 2013. “Parallelization of a grid-to-grid routing algorithm based on grids layering”, Journal of national university of defense technology (in Chinese), 2013, 35(1): 123-129.

95. Liu, J.Z., A.X. Zhu*, C. Qin, L. Chen, H. Wu, J. Jiang, 2013. “Review on parallel computing of distributed hydrological models”, Process in geography (in Chinese), 2013, 32(4): 538-547.

94. Jiang, J.C., A.X. Zhu*, C. Z. Qin, L. Yang, F. Liu, S. Zhang, 2013. “CyberSoLIM: knowledge-driven on-line digital soil mapping prototype system”, Acta pedologica sinica(in Chinese), 2013, 50(6): 149-153.

93. Wu, H.*, Y.B. Liu, A.X. Zhu, J. Liu, 2013. “Review of spatial optimization algorithms in BMPs placement at watershed scale”, Process in geography (in Chinese), 32(4): 570-579.

92. Zhu, A.X., P. Wang, T.X. Zhu, L. Chen*, Q. Cai, H. Liu, 2013. “Modeling runoff and soil erosion in the three-gorge reservoir drainage area of China using limited plot data”, Journal of Hydrology, 492, 163–175.

91. Qin, C.Z., L.L. Bao, A.X. Zhu*, R.X. Wang, X.M. Hu, 2013. “Uncertainty due to DEM error in landslide susceptibility mapping”, International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 27(7), 1364-1380.

90. Qin, C.Z.*, L.L. Bao, A.X. Zhu, X.M. Hu, B. Qin, 2013. “Artificial surfaces simulating complex terrain types for evaluating grid-based flow direction algorithms”, International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 27(6), 1055-1072.

89. Yang, L., A.X. Zhu*, F. Qi, C. Qin, B. Li, T. Pei, 2013. “An integrative hierarchical stepwise sampling strategy for spatial sampling and its application in digital soil mapping”, International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 27(1), 1-23.

88. Liu, J.Z., A.X. Zhu*, C.Z. Qin, 2013. “Estimation of theoretical maximum speedup ratio for parallel computing of grid-based distributed hydrological models”, Computers & Geosciences, 60, 58–62.

87. Zhu, A.X., L.J. Chen*, C.Z. Qin, P. Wang, J.Z. Liu, R.K. Li, Q.G. Cai, 2012. “A new paradigm for soil-water conservation assessment: a framework based on watershed modeling and scenario analysis”, Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology (in Chinese), 2012, 23(7): 1-9.

86. Zhang, S.J.*, A.X. Zhu, J. Liu, L. Yang, 2012. “An Integrative Sampling Scheme for Digital Soil Mapping”, Process in georraphy (in Chinese), 2012, 31(10): 1317-1324.

85. Zhang, S.J.*, A.X. Zhu, J. Liu, L. Yang, 2012. “Sample-based digital soil mapping methods and related sampling schemes”, Soils (in Chinese), 2012, 12: 881-889.

84. Liu, J.Z., A.X. Zhu*, Z. Duan, 2012. “Evaluation of TRMM 3B42 Precipitation Product Using Rain Gauge Data in Meichuan Watershed, Poyang Lake Basin, China”, Journal of Resources and Ecology, 3(4), 359-366.

83. Liu, F., X. Geng, A.X. Zhu*, W. Fraser, 2012. “Soil texture mapping over low relief areas using land surface feedback dynamic patterns extracted from MODIS”, Geoderma, 171–172, 44–52.

82. Chen, L.J., A.X. Zhu*, C.Z. Qin, 2012. “Identification of critical source areas of soil erosion on moderate fine spatial scale in Loess Plateau in China”, African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7(19), 2962-2970.

81. Zhan, L.J., C.Z. Qin*, A.X. Zhu, 2012. “Which type of slope gradient should be used to determine flow-partition proportion in multiple-flow-direction algorithms—tangent or sine? ”, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 2012, 9, 6409-6418.

80. Gao, J.*, J.E. Burt, A.X. Zhu, 2012. “Neighborhood size and spatial scale in raster-based slope calculations”, International Journal of Geographic Information Science, 26(10), 1959-1978.

79. Li, R.K., A.X. Zhu, X.F. Song*, B.L. Li, T. Pei, C.Z. Qin, 2012. “Effects of Spatial Aggregation of Soil Spatial Information on Watershed Hydrological Modeling”, Hydrological Processes, 26(9), 1390-1404.

78. Zhu, A.X.*, M. Lark, B. Minasny, Y. Huang, 2012. “Editorial: Entering the Digital World”, Geoderma, 171-172, 1-2.

77. Qin, C.Z.*, A.X. Zhu, W.L. Qiu, Y.J. Lu, B.L. Bao, T. Pei, 2012. “Mapping soil organic matter in small low-relief catchments using fuzzy slope position information”, Geoderma, 171-172, 64-74.

76. Sun, X.L., Y.G. Zhao, H.L. Wang, L. Yang, C.Z. Qin, A.X. Zhu*, G.L. Zhang, T. Pei, B.L. Li, 2012. “Sensitivity of digital soil maps based on FCM to the fuzzy exponent and the number of clusters”, Geoderma, 171-172, 24 –34.

75.  Liu, F., X. Geng, A.X. Zhu*, W. Fraser, A. Waddell, 2012. “Soil texture mapping over low relief areas using land surface feedback dynamic patterns extracted from MODIS”, Geoderma, 171–172, 44–52.

74. Li, R.K., A.X. Zhu, L.J. Chen, B.L. Li, T. Pei, C.Z. Qin, 2011. “Seasonal Differences in responses of surface runoff to detail soil information”, Journal of Natural Resources (in Chinese), 2011, 22(2): 168-174.

73. Lu, Y.J., C.Z. Qin*, W.L. Qiu, A.X. Zhu, 2011. “Sensitivity Analysis of Soil Property Parameter in Typical-sample-based Prediction Model of Digital Soil Mapping”, Scientia Geographica Sinica (in Chinese), 2011, 31(12): 1549-1554.

72. Yang, L.*, A.X. Zhu, C.Z. Qin, B.L. Li, T. Pei, 2011. “A Soil Sampling Method Based on Representativeness Grade of Sampling Points”, Acta Pedologica Sinica (in Chinese), 2011, 48(5): 938-946.

71. Du, F.*, A.X. Zhu, T. Pei, C.Z. Qin, 2011. “The construction of geo-visual analysis environment for raster geospatial data”, Geo-Information Science (in Chinese), 2011, 13(4): 472-479.

70. Li, R.K.*, A.X. Zhu, C.Z. Qin, L.J. Chen, J.Z. Liu, 2011. “Effects of Spatial Detail of Soil Data on Distributed Watershed Modeling”, Advances in Water Science(in Chinese), 2011, 22(2): 168-174.

69. Chen, L.J.*, A.X. Zhu, C.Z. Qin, R.K. Li, J. Liu, J.Z. Liu, 2011. “Integration of Hydrological and Ecological Processes at Watershed Scale”, Progress in Geographic Science (in Chinese), 2011, 30(5): 535-544.

68. Li, R.K., A.X. Zhu*, T. Pei, B.L. Li, C.Z. Qin, 2011. “Response of simulated streamflow to soil data spatial detail across different routing areas”, Progress in Geography (in Chinese), 2011, 30(1): 80-86.

67. Bao, L.L., C.Z. Qin*, A.X. Zhu, 2011. “Quantitative error assessment of topographic wetness endex algorithms”, Progress in Geographic Science (in Chinese), 2011, 30(1): 57-64.

66. Burt, J.E., A.X. Zhu*, M. Harrower, 2011. “Depicting classification uncertainty using perception based color models”, Annals of GIS, 17(3), 147-153.

65. Qi, F.*, A.X. Zhu, 2011. “Comparing three methods for modeling the uncertainty in knowledge discovery from area-class soil maps”, Computers & Geosciences 37, 1425-1437.

64. Qin, C.Z.*, A.X Zhu, T. Pei, B.L. Li, S. Scholten, T. Behrens, C.H. Zhou, 2011. “An approach to computing topographic wetness index based on maximum downslope gradient”. Precision Agriculture. 12(1), 32-43.

63. Yang, L., F. Sherif, Y. Jiao, H. Sheldon, A.X. Zhu*, C.Z. Qin, Z.G. Xu, 2011. “Updating conventional soil maps through digital soil mapping”, Soil Science Society of America Journal. 75(3), 1044-1053.

62. Yang, L.*, F. Sherif, Y. Jiao, H. Sheldon, A.X. Zhu, C.Z. Qin, Z.G. Xu, 2010. “Updating conventional soil maps using knowledge on soil-environment relationships extracted from the maps”, Acta Pedologica Sinica (in Chinese), 2010, 47(6): 11-21.

61. Liu, F.*, A.X. Zhu, T. Pei, C.Z. Qin, B.L. Li, 2010. “Application of High Temporal Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing in Identifying Soil Texture Patterns.” Journal of Geo-Information Science (in Chinese), 2010, 12(5): 733-740.

60. Yang, L.*, A.X. Zhu, C.Z. Qin, B.L. Li, T. Pei, W.L. Qiu, Z.G. Xu, 2010. “A purposive sampling design method based on typical points and its application in soil mapping”, Progress in Geographic Science (in Chinese), 2010,29(3): 279-286.

59. Qin, C.Z.*, Y.J. Lu, W.L. Qiu, A.X. Zhu, L.Y. Zhang, L. Yang. 2010. “Application of fuzzy slope positions in predicting spatial distribution of soil property at finer scale”, Geographic Research (in Chinese), 2010, 29(9): 1706-1714.

58. Li, R.K.*, A.X. Zhu, X.F. Song, M. Cui, 2010. “Seasonal Dynamics of Runoff-Sediment Relationship and Its Controlling Factors in Black Soil Region of Northeast China”, Journal of Resources and Ecology, 1(4), 345-352.

57. Zhu, A.X., F. Qi*, A. Moore, J.E. Burt, 2010. “Prediction of soil properties using fuzzy membership”, Geoderma, 158, 199-206.

56. Pei, T., C.H. Zhou*, A.X. Zhu, B.L. Li, C.Z. Qin, 2010. “Windowed nearest neighbor method for mining spatio-temporal clusters in the presence of noise”, International Journal of Geographic Information Science, 24(6), 925-948.

55. Pei, T., C.Z. Qin, A.X. Zhu*, L. Yang, M. Luo, B.L. Li, C.H. Zhou, 2010. “Mapping soil organic matter using the topographic wetness index: A comparative study based on different flow-direction algorithms and kriging methods”, Ecological Indicator, 10(3), 610-619.

54. Zhu, A.X., F. Liu*, B.L. Li, T. Pei, C.Z. Qin, G.H. Liu, Y.J. Wang, Y.N. Chen, X.W. Ma, F. Qi, C.H. Zhou, 2010. “Differentiation of soil conditions over flat areas using land surface feedback dynamic patterns extracted from MODIS”, Soil Science Society of America Journal. 74(3), 861-869.

53. Behrens, T., K. Schmidt, A.X. Zhu, T. Scholten, 2010. “The ConMap approach for terrain-based digital soil mapping”, European Journal of Soil Science, 61, 133-143.

52. Zhu, A.X., L. Yang*, B.L. Li, C.Z. Qin, T. Pei, B.Y. Liu, 2010. “Construction of quantitative relationships between soil and environment using fuzzy c-means clustering”, Geoderma, 155(3-4), 166-174.

51. Behrens, T., A.X. Zhu, K. Schmidt*, T. Scholten, 2010. “Multi-scale digital terrain analysis and feature selection for digital soil mapping”, Geoderma, 155(3-4), 175-185.

50. Wang, P.*, A.X. Zhu, Q.G. Cai, H.P. Liu, 2009. “Establishment of conceptual soil erosion model and application in purple soil watershed”, Transactions of the CSAE (Chinese), 2009, 25(12): 80-87.

49. Qin, C.Z.*, Y.J. Lu, L.L. Bao, A.X. Zhu, W.L. Qiu, W.M. Cheng, 2009. “Simple digital terrain analysis software (SimDTA V1.0) and its application in fuzzy classification of slope positions”, Journal of Geo-Information Science (Chinese), 2009, 11(6): 737-743.

48. Liu, H.L.*, C.H. Zhou, A.X. Zhu, L. Li, 2009. “Multi-population genetic neural network model for short-term traffic flow prediction at intersections”, Acta Geodaetica et Cartographica Sinica (Chinese), 2009, 38(4): 363-368.

47. Liu, F.*, A.X. Zhu, B.L. Li, T. Pei, C.H. Qin, G.H. Liu, Y.J. Wang, C.H. Zhou, 2009. “Differentiation of soil spatial variation using land surface dynamics captured by remote sensing techniques”, Soil Information (in Chinese), 2009, 40(3): 501-508.

46. Yang, L.*, A.X. Zhu, C.Z. Qin, B.L. Li, T. Pei, B.Y. Liu, 2009. “Mapping soil property using fuzzy membership: an example from He Shan, Heilongjiang Province”, Acta Pedologica Sinica (in Chinese), 2009, 46(1): 9-15.

45. Pei, T.*, A.X. Zhu, C. Zhou, B. Li, C. Qin, 2009. “Detecting feature from spatial point processes using Collective Nearest Neighbor”, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 33(6), 435-447.

44. Ren, G., A.X. Zhu, W. Wang, W. Xiao, Y. Huang, G. Li, D. Li, J. Zhu*, 2009. “A hierarchical approach coupled with coarse DEM information for improving the efficiency and accuracy of forest mapping over very rugged terrains”, Forest Ecology and Management, 258(1), 26-34.

43. Qin, C.Z., A.X. Zhu*, X. Shi, T. Pei, B. Li, C. Zhou, 2009. “The quantification of spatial gradation of slope positions”, Geomorphology,110(3-4), 152-161.

42. Liu, J.*, Zhu, A.X., 2009. “Mapping with words: a new approach to automated digital soil survey”, International Journal of Intelligent Systems, 24(3), 293-311.

41. Pei, T., A. Jasra, D.J. Hand, A.X. Zhu, C.H. Zhou*, 2009. “DECODE: A new method for discovering clusters of different densities in spatial data”, Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery, 18(3), 337-369.

40. Zhou, S.Y.*, A.X. Zhu, W.L. Qiu, F. Liu, J.C. Dai, 2008. “GIS-based connectivity analysis and its application in prime farmland protection planning”, Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (in Chinese), 2008, 24(7): 72-77.

39. Yang, F.H.*, A.X. Zhu, K. Ichii, M.A. White, H. Hashimoto, R.R. Nemani, 2008. “Assesing the representativeness of the Ameriflux network using MODIS and GOES data”, Journal of Geophysical Research,Vol. 113, DOI: 10.1029/2007JG000627.

38. Qi, F.*, A.X. Zhu, T. Pei, C. Qin, J.E. Burt, 2008, “Knowledge discovery from area-class resource maps: capturing prototype effects”, Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 35(4), 223-237.

37. Li, B.L.*, A.X. Zhu, C.H. Zhou, Y.C. Zhang, T. Pei, C.Z. Qin, 2008. “Automatic mapping of snow cover depletion curves using optical remote sensing data under conditions of frequent cloud cover and temporary snow”, Hydrological Processes, 22(16), 2930-2942.

36. Qin, C.Z.*, A.X. Zhu, X. Shi, B.L. Li, T. Pei, C.H. Zhou, 2007. “Fuzzy inference of gradation of slope positions”, Geographical Research (in Chinese), 26(6): 1165-1174.

35. Yang, L.*, A. X, Zhu, B.L. Li£¬C. Qin, T. Pei, B.Y. Liu, R.K. Li, Q.G. Cai, 2007. “Extraction of Knowledge about Soil-Environment Relationship for Soil Mapping Using Fuzzy c-Means (FCM) Clustering”, Acta Pedologica Sinica (in Chinese), 2007, 44(5): 16-23.

34.    Li, R.K.*, A.X. Zhu, P.C. Augello, J.E. Burt, 2007. “Sensitivity of SWAT model to detailed soil information”, Geo-Information Science (in Chinese), 2007, 9(3): 72-78.

33. Yang, F.*, K. Ichii, M.A. White, H. Hashimoto, A.R. Michaelis, P.Votava, A.X. Zhu, A. Huete, S. Running, R.R. Nemani, 2007. “Developing a continental-scale measure of gross primary production by combining MODIS and AmeriFlux data through support vector machine approach”, Remote Sensing of Environment, 110(1), 109-122.

32. Cui, M.*, Q.G. Cai, A.X. Zhu, H.M. Fan, 2007. “Soil erosion along a long slope in the gentle hilly areas of black soil region in Northest China”. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 17, 375-383.

31. Pei, T.*, A.X. Zhu, C.H. Zhou, B.L. Li, C.Z. Qin, 2007. “Delineation of support domain of feature in the presence of noise”, Computer & Geosciences, 33, 592-965.

30.     Qin, C.Z.*, A.X. Zhu, T. Pei, L. Yang, T. Pei, B. Li, C. Zhou, 2007.An adaptive approach to selecting flow partition exponent for multiple flow direction algorithm”, International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 21(4), 443-458.

29.     Shi, X.*, A.X. Zhu, J. Burt, W. Choi, R. Wang, T. Pei, B. Li, C. Qin, 2007. “An experiment using a circular neighborhood to calculated slope gradient from a DEM”, Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, 73(2), 143-154.

28.    Qin, C.Z.*, A.X. Zhu, B.L. Li, T. Pei, C.H. Zhou, 2006. “Review of multiple flow direction algorithms based on gridded digital elevation models”, Earth Science Frontiers (in Chinese), 2006, 13(3): 91-98.

27. Qin, C.Z.*, L. Yang, A.X. Zhu, B.L. Li, T. Pei, C.H. Zhou, 2006. “A method for computing topographic wetness index over flat terrain”, Progress in Geographic Science (in Chinese), 2006, 25(6): 87-93.

26. Qin, C.Z, B.L. Li, A.X. Zhu, L. Yang, T. Pei, C.H. Zhou, 2006. “A strategy for allocating flow in multiple direction using down-slope gradient”, Progress in Hydrological Science (in Chinese), 2006, 17(4): 450-456.

25.     Zhu, A.X., T. Pei, J.P. Qiao, Y.B. Chen, C.H. Zhou, Q.G. Cai, 2006. “A knowledge-based approach to landslide susceptibility assessment”, Progress in Geographic Science (in Chinese), 2006, 25(4): 1-12.

24. Qiao, J.P.*, A.X. Zhu, C.Y. Wu, H.L. Tian, 2006. “Landslide susceptibility analysis based on contribution of intrinsic factors”, Mountain Research(in Chinese), 2006, 24(5): 569-573.

23. Roth, R., A.X. Zhu*, E. Holbus, J. Papez, J. Quan, 2006. “An automated approach to site selection for ecological restoration in fragmented landscape”, Journal of Geographical Information Science, 12(2), 98-105.

22.     Yang, F.*, M. A. White, A. R. Michaelis, K. Ichii, H. Hashimoto, P. Votava, A.X. Zhu, R.R. Nemani, 2006. “Prediction of Continental Scale Evapotranspiration by Combining MODIS and AmeriFlux Data through Support Vector Machine”, IEEE Transaction on Geosciences and Remote Sensing, 44(11), 3452-3461.

21.     Li, B.L.*, A.X. Zhu, Y.C. Zhang, T. Pei, C.Z. Qin, C.H. Zhou, 2006. “Glacier change over the past four decades in the middle Chinese Tien Shan”, Journal of Glaciology, 52(178), 425-432.

20. Smith, M., A.X. Zhu*, J.E. Burt, C. Stiles, 2006, “Effects of DEM resolution and neighborhood size on soil survey”, Geoderma, 137, 58-69.

19. Qi, F.*, A.X. Zhu, M. Harrower, and J.E. Burt. 2006. “Fuzzy soil mapping based on prototype category theory”, Geoderma, 136, 774-787.

18. Pei, T.*, A.X. Zhu, C.H. Zhou, B.L. Li, C. Qin, 2006. “A new approach on nearest-neighbor method to discover cluster features in overlaid spatial point processes”, International Geographical Information Science, 20(2), 153-168.

17. Zhu, A.X.*, B.L. Li, L. Yang, T. Pei, C.Z. Qin, G.L. Zhang, Q.G. Cai, C.H. Zhou, 2005. “Predictive Soil Mapping Based on A GIS, Expert Knowledge, and Fuzzy Logic Framework and Its Application Prospects in China”, Acta Pedologica Sinica(in Chinese), 2005, 42(5): 844-851.

16. Quinn, T., A.X. Zhu*, J.E. Burt, 2005. “Effects of detail soil spatial information on watershed modeling across different model scales”, International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 7, 324-338.

15. Li, W.*, C. Zhang, J.E. Burt, A.X. Zhu. 2005. “A Markov chain-based probability vector approach for modeling spatial uncertainties of soil classes”. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 69(6), 1931-1942.

14. Li, W.*, J.E. Burt, A.X. Zhu, C. Zhang, J. Feyen, 2004. “Two-dimensional Markov chain for simulating spatial distribution of soil types”, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 68, 1479-1490.

13. Shi, X.*, A.X. Zhu, J. Burt, F. Qi, D. Simonson, 2004. “A case-based reasoning approach to fuzzy soil mapping”, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 68, 885-894.

12. Qi, F.*, A.X. Zhu, 2003. “Knowledge discovery from soil maps using inductive learning”, International Journal of Geographical information Science, 17(8), 771-795.

11. Qiao, J.P., A.X. Zhu, Y.B. Chen, R.X. Wang, 2003. “A 3D visible evaluation of landslide risk degree under integration of GIS and artificial intelligence”, Science in China E: Engineering & Materials Science, 46, 142-147.

10. Zhu, A.X.*, B. Hudson, J. E. Burt, K. Lubich, D. Simonson, 2001. “Soil mapping using GIS, expert knowledge and fuzzy logic”, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 65, 1463-1472.

9.    Zhu, A.X.*, D.S, Mackay, 2001. “Effects of spatial detail of soil information on watershed modeling”, Journal of Hydrology, 248, 54-77.

8.    Zhu, A.X. 2000. “Mapping soil landscape as spatial continua: the neural network approach”. Water Resources Research, 36(3), 663-677.

7.    Pang, S.C., A.X. Zhu. 1999. “Spatial Structure of Accommodation Costs in the Madison area”. Geographic Information Sciences, 4, 59-65.

6.    Zhu, A.X. 1999. “A personal construct-based knowledge acquisition process for natural resource mapping using GIS”.  International Journal of Geographic Information Science, 13(2), 119-141.

5.    Zhu, A.X. 1997. “Measuring uncertainty in class assignment for natural resource maps using a similarity model”. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, 63, 1195-1202.

4.    Zhu, A.X. 1997. “A similarity model for representing soil spatial information”.  Geoderma, 77, 217-242.

3.    Zhu, A.X., L.E. Band, R. Vertessy, B. Dutton, 1997.  “Derivation of soil properties using a Soil-Land Inference Model (SoLIM)”. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 61(2), 523-533.

2.    Zhu, A.X., L.E. Band, B. Dutton, T. Nimlos, 1996. “Automated soil inference under fuzzy logic”, Ecological Modeling, 90, 123-145.

1. Zhu, A.X., L.E. Band, 1994.  “A knowledge-based approach to data integration for soil mapping”, Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 20(4), 408-418.

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